Exploring Co-Financing Models for Large-Scale Renewable Energy Projects

In order to overcome this challenge, various co-financing models have been developed, allowing multiple stakeholders to contribute to the funding of these projects. This article explores different co-financing models that have been successfully employed in large-scale renewable energy projects, highlighting their features, advantages, and key takeaways.

Joint Ventures

Joint ventures involve partnerships between private and public entities, where both parties contribute funds to finance a renewable energy project. This model enables project developers to access capital from private investors while leveraging the public sector’s expertise and resources. Joint ventures offer several distinct advantages:

  • Shared financial risks and rewards
  • Access to diverse expertise and resources
  • Increased credibility and market acceptance

According to a report by the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA), joint ventures accounted for over 10% of renewable energy investments worldwide in 2020, with solar and wind projects being the most common beneficiaries.[1]

Key takeaway: Joint ventures provide a collaborative approach towards financing large-scale renewable energy projects, mitigating financial risks while leveraging different stakeholders’ strengths.

Power Purchase Agreements (PPAs)

Power purchase agreements (PPAs) involve long-term contracts between project developers and energy consumers (e.g., utility companies, corporations). Under this model, the energy consumer agrees to purchase the renewable energy generated by the project at a predetermined price. PPAs offer numerous benefits:

  • Stable and predictable revenues for project developers
  • Reduced financial risks by ensuring a guaranteed market for the produced energy
  • Greater interest from investors due to the long-term revenue stream

The falling costs of renewable energy technologies, combined with the attractiveness of PPAs, have encouraged a significant rise in renewable energy project investments. In fact, a study conducted by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) found that renewable energy projects using PPAs received 56% more investment compared to those without such agreements in 2020.[2]

Key takeaway: PPAs provide a mutually beneficial arrangement, ensuring financial stability for project developers while offering energy consumers a steady supply of renewable energy at a predetermined price.

Green Bonds

Green bonds are debt instruments exclusively used to fund environmentally friendly projects, including renewable energy projects. These bonds provide an opportunity for investors to finance large-scale renewable energy projects while supporting sustainability initiatives. Notable advantages of green bonds include:

  • Access to a new pool of investors interested in sustainable investments
  • Potential cost savings due to lower interest rates and enhanced marketability
  • Alignment with environmental, social, and governance (ESG) criteria, appealing to responsible investors

The global green bond market has experienced rapid growth, with issuance reaching a record high of $299.5 billion in 2020, representing a 9% increase compared to the previous year.[3]

Key takeaway: Green bonds offer an innovative financing solution for renewable energy projects, attracting environmentally conscious investors while supporting the transition to a low-carbon economy.

Government Grants and Subsidies

Government grants and subsidies play a crucial role in facilitating the deployment of large-scale renewable energy projects. By offering financial incentives, governments encourage private sector investments in renewable energy and drive the transition towards a cleaner energy mix. Key advantages of government support include:

  • Reduced financial risks for project developers
  • Incentives to attract private sector investments and foster innovation
  • Acceleration of the transition to a more sustainable energy system

Statistics from the Renewables 2021 Global Status Report reveal that global renewable energy capacity grew by 10.3% in 2020, with policy support being a crucial driver for this growth.[4]

Key takeaway: Government grants and subsidies are instrumental in scaling up renewable energy projects, incentivizing private sector investments and facilitating the achievement of national clean energy targets.

Co-financing models play a pivotal role in overcoming the financial barriers associated with large-scale renewable energy projects. Whether through joint ventures, power purchase agreements, green bonds, or government support, these models offer innovative and collaborative approaches towards financing sustainable energy initiatives. By leveraging diverse stakeholders, renewable energy projects can accelerate their deployment, contributing to the global transition to a cleaner and more sustainable future.


  1. IRENA: Renewable Energy Finance Monitor (2021)
  2. UNDP: Disruptor Series #2 – Green Financing in the Philippines to Build Back Better (2021)
  3. Climate Bonds Initiative: 2020 Green Bonds Market Summary Report (2021)
  4. REN21: Renewables 2021 Global Status Report (2021)

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